In 1996, a bill known as the Kennedy-Kassebaum Bill was passed by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Bill Clinton. The new law was known as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or more commonly, HIPAA. It had started as a measure to ensure that workers could keep their health insurance when they changed jobs. By the time of its passage, it had become much more complex and far-ranging, affecting the vast majority of all health-care entities in the United States.

Because of the complexity and wide range of HIPAA, there has been and continues to be a great deal of confusion about how it applies to many areas, including remote backup. This page will present a brief overview of HIPAA, and demonstrate how True Defense can be a valuable tool in meeting the requirements of HIPAA’s Security Rule.

Who Must Comply

Those who must comply with HIPAA fall into two categories. The first category is Covered Entities. Covered Entities include all health plans, health care clearinghouses, or health care providers who transmit health information in electronic form. The second category is the Business Associates of those Covered Entities. A Business Associate is someone who performs certain functions or activities on behalf of, or provides certain services to, a covered entity that involve the use or disclosure of individually identifiable health information. Business associate functions or activities on behalf of a covered entity include claims processing, data analysis, utilization review, and billing.

Business associate services to a covered entity are limited to legal, actuarial, accounting, consulting, data aggregation, management, administrative, accreditation, or financial services. However, persons or organizations are not considered business associates if their functions or services do not involve the use or disclosure of protected health information (PHI), and where any access to protected health information by such persons would be incidental, if at all.

HIPAA Overview

HIPAA consists of five parts:

  • Title 1 – Health Insurance Portability – helps workers maintain insurance coverage when they change jobs
  • Title 2 – Administrative Simplification – standardizes electronic health care-related transactions, and the privacy and security of health information.
  • Title 3 – Medical Savings Accounts & Health Insurance Tax Deductions
  • Title 4 – Enforcement of Group Health Plan provisions
  • Title 5 – Revenue Offset Provisions

Fortunately, four of the five parts of HIPAA have no bearing on True Defense remote backup. The one part that does apply is Title 2 – Administrative Simplification.

Administrative Simplification

HIPAA Administrative Simplification consists of two areas, the “Transactions and Code Sets Rule” and the “Privacy Rule and the Security Rule.” True Defense is not a health-related transaction, and is therefore not covered under the Transactions and Code Sets Rule. The second area of Administrative Simplification is made up of two Rules, the Privacy Rule and the Security Rule. Because these two rules are where the most confusion arises, we will examine them in some detail.

Privacy and Security

Before the Privacy and Security Rules can be explained, we must understand what they are intended to protect. Both Rules are intended to safeguard any health-related information that can be traced to or used to identify an individual. Some examples of this type of information include name, address, Date of Birth,Social Security number, or any other identifier. This type of information is referred to as Protected Health Information, or PHI.

The Privacy Rule and Security Rule are intended to protect PHI in different ways. The Privacy Rule sets out limits on who can have access to PHI and for what purpose. The Security Rule regulates the Procedural, Physical and Technical means that are used to protect PHI.


The Privacy Rule places limits on the ways that PHI can be used and disclosed, and requires accounting of disclosures. But it is relevant at this point to review how True Defense works.

With True Defense, all information to be backed up is encrypted by the local client before being transmitted, using a key that is stored locally. Data is stored on the remote server in its encrypted form. Data can only be recovered by transmitting it back to the local client, which decrypts it, again using the locally stored key. The most important feature of this arrangement is that while the data is stored on the remote server, it is encrypted and not in a readable format. The remote server does not have access to the key, and without the key, the data cannot be converted to a readable format.

True Defense does not involve the use or disclosure of PHI. All back-up data is stored on our servers in an encrypted form, and any access to PHI by True Defense would be incidental, if even possible. True Defense are therefore not normally considered to be Business Associates, and are not covered by or required to be compliant with the HIPAA Administrative Simplification Privacy Rule.


The Security Rule is the one part of HIPAA that clearly applies to the type of services that True Defense offers. The Final Security Rule was published in February 2003, and became effective on April 21, 2003. Compliance with this Rule will be required by April 21, 2005.

The Security Rule legislates the means that should be used to protect PHI. It requires that covered entities have appropriate Administrative Procedures, Physical Safeguards, and Technical Safeguards to protect access to PHI.

Examples of appropriate safeguards include:

  • Establishment of clear Access Control policies, procedures, and technology to restrict who has authorized access to PHI.
  • Establishment of restricted and locked areas where PHI is stored.
  • Establishment of appropriate Data Backup, Disaster Recovery, and Emergency Mode Operation planning.
  • Establishment of technical security mechanisms such as encryption to protect data that is transmitted via a network.

True Defense is compliant with the Final Security Rule.

The True Defense client software contains all appropriate technical security mechanisms to protect the data that is transmitted to and from the True Defense servers.

True Defense can form a critical part of Data Backup, Disaster Recovery, and Emergency Mode Operations strategies by providing offsite backup that can be geographically distant from the client site to minimize the likelihood of data loss in a large-scale disaster. In the event of loss of the primary data center, data on a True Defense server can easily be recovered from any replacement data center.

Covered entities will be required to comply with the HIPAA Administrative Simplification Security Rule by April 21, 2005. True Defense, as part of a comprehensive security plan, can be an important part of compliance strategy.

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